"Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong; they are the ones to attain felicity".
(surah Al-Imran,ayat-104)
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Khaksar and JallianwalaBaghMassacres:

The Bloodbaths that Ignited the Freedom Movement


By NasimYousaf


The cold-blooded massacre of Khaksarsin Lahore and the JallianwalaBagh incident in Amritsar took place on March 19, 1940 and April 13, 1919 respectively. The two tragediesoccurred in cities in Punjab that are only 31 miles (50 km) apart.The Khaksar and JallianwalaBagh massacres not only broughtcountry-wide resentment against the British Raj, but also sparked the Indian sub-continent’s (now comprised of Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh) freedom movement, which led to the fall of British rule in 1947.


On March 19, 1940, a uniformed contingent of 313members of the Khaksar Movement (KhaksarTehrik) marched in protest against restrictions imposed on their activities. Despite the fact that they were parading peacefully, police -headed by DonaldGainsford (Senior Superintendent of Police, Lahore), P. C. D. Beaty (Deputy Superintendent of Police), and Frederick Chalmers Bourne (District Magistrate)– showed up to stop the protest.Gainsford“slapped Inayat Shah[the Khaksar contingent’s leader] in the face”for not following his orderstoabandon the protest march. Deputy Superintendent of Police Beatythen shouted “Maro, Fire Karo” (attack and fire). The police then opened fire and, according to witnesses, indiscriminately killed over 200 Khaksars (the official figureintentionallyunderreportedthe death toll to be in the 30’s)and injured many others. According to the police station clerk’s (Moharir, who is required to record all happenings) register, 1,620 rounds were issuedto the police force under Beaty on March 19, 1940 and only 1,213 returned, which in itself speaks to the tremendous number of martyredand injuredKhaksars. This Khaksar massacre took place at a pivotal moment in the sub-continent’s history, as AllamaMashriqi was on the verge of toppling British rule. The police actions were considered to be an aggressive and brutal maneuver to try and stop Mashriqi and the Khaksars.


In the afternoon of the black day, a heavy contingent of police, accompanied by army soldiers, raided the KhaksarTehrik’s Headquarters in Lahore. They threw tear-gas grenades and arrested Khaksars. One of Mashriqi’s sons (Ehsanullah Khan Aslam) was injured by police and later died on May 31, 1940 (over 50,000 people attended his funeral). AllamaMashriqi, who was in Delhi at the time, was also arrested and taken to Vellore Central Jail, where he remained for almost two years withouttrial (upon his release, restrictionswere imposed on his movements).


Following the massacre, heaps of bullet-riddledKhaksarbodies were heartlessly dragged and whisked away in police trucks.In an attempt to quell public reaction, no funeral processions were allowed for themartyredKhaksarsand their bodies were buried in the darkness of night.News of the tragedy flashed around the world (from Australia to Germany to IndiatoUK to the USA).


In order to minimizethe tragedy in the public eye and justify the killings, the Government continuedits massive propaganda campaignagainst the KhaksarTehrik (which hadbegan even before the incident), utilizing both the press and other avenues to further this agenda. The media negatively portrayed the KhaksarTehrik and tried to falsely brand the Khaksars as terrorists (even though the organization did not believe in killing innocent civilians and had no record of doing so) or fascists. For example, The Newsfrom (Adelaide) Australiapublished the headline “India's Three [over Five] Million Lawful Fascists”onSep. 19, 1944. Despite the media cover-up, the public was outraged by the death of innocent Khaksars and the arrests of Mashriqi, his sons, and followers. The Viceroy of India Lord Linlithgow and Governor of Punjab Sir Henry Duffield Craik did not issue any apologies. The Government’s strong reaction and negative propaganda campaign confirmed that the Khaksar Movement had become the most powerful private army in British India. And the massacre only strengthened the public resolve to obtain freedom.


The Khaksar massacre had many similarities to the incident at JallianwalaBagh. On April 13, 1919,a crowd of thousands gathered at JallianwalaBagh in Amritsar.Brigadier General R.E.H. Dyer considered this a defiance of his earlier proclamationto the city banning public meetings and gatherings.Dyer ordered the troops of the British Indian Army to begin indiscriminatelyshooting.1650 rounds were firedand many people were killed or injured. No authentic count of the dead or injured is available; the British estimate of the death toll was 379, while Indian estimates were much greater.


In both the Khaksar and JallianwalaBaghmassacres, theGovernment setup inquiry commissions to pacify the public.For the Khaksarincident, a High Court Inquiry Committee was formed under the presidentship of Sir Douglas Young,but the final report wasnever released for public consumption. In the case ofJallianwalaBagh, the Hunter Commission (under Lord Hunter) was formed and a report was later released.


In both incidents, the public was outraged. Following the massacre, the Khaksars continued with their civil disobedience movement in protest of the Government’s actions. They used the Wazir Khan and Golden Mosques as their bases of resistance, but did not resort to any violent activities (such as destroying government property). In the case of JallianwalaBagh, people reacted as well and some resorted to violent activity.


In closing,both the Khaksar massacre and the JallianwalaBagh incident are of great historical importance. In the case of JallianwalaBagh, the Indian Government and historians have kept the incident alive. Many dignitaries such as QueenElizabeth, the Duke of Edinburgh, Prime Ministers Tony Blair and David Cameron, and London Mayor Sadiq Khanhave visited the memorial at JallianwalaBagh to pay obeisance.But in the case of the Khaksar massacre, the Governments of India, Pakistan, and Britain have not yet taken any concrete action - whethervisiting the site of the heartbreaking tragedy to pay homage or building a memorialor members of parliament seeking the British government’s formal apology.Filmmakers and historians also need to come forward to enlighten the public about this important incident. The fact of the matter is that the Khaksars laid their lives for the sake of freedom. And their blood was not in vain, as the Indian sub-continent obtained its independence when Pakistan and India emerged in 1947.


The incidents on March 19, 1940 and April 13, 1919 are amongst the greatest stains on the reputation of the British Empire. These brutal bloodbaths shook the people of the sub-continent and built tremendous resentment against the British government, ultimately leadingto the fall of British rule in 1947.

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