"Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong; they are the ones to attain felicity".
(surah Al-Imran,ayat-104)
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User Name: SHBangash
Full Name: S H Bangash
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"Islam contribution to modern Science & Technology"./" Knowledge & Science is the virtue of Islam"


"Great Scientists got knowledge & Wisdom from Imam Sadiq(a.s)".


Islam always stressed on the seeking of knowledge & using of it for the welfare of humainty & society.In holy Quran the Holy Prophet(saww) is instructed by God to ask supplication"O GOD; Increase my Knowledge" .Moreover Holy Prophet Hazrat Muahammad (saww) says.

" Seeking of Knowledge is the duty of every Muslim man & woman".

"Seek Knowledge if it is be in China(China in those days was the far away place from Hijaz)."

"Seek knowledge from the cradle to the grave".

The same practice about the importance of Knowledge & establishment of institutions or universities/madrasa for them was continued by the family of the Holy Prophet (AHLUL-BAIT(A.S) In this regard the enemies of Islam & Ahlul-bait( a.s) made hardships for them But yet these Imams continued their struggle.

The more time and favorable environment was available for Imam Jaffer-e-Sadiq(a.s) who established and promoted the knowledge , the people of all walks and religions without any discrimination even Jews & Christians beneifted from Imam ( a.s) Knowledge.This golden period of Islam laid the foundation of modern science & Technology.

Many of the important scientists and founders of modern Science & Technology are the pupils of Imam Jaffer-e-Sadiq(a.s) which include the great scientist & founder of chemistry Jabir bin Hayan who invented sulphuric acid ,the founder of medicine & Surgery Naseer Uddin Tosi etc.

With addition to this Imam Abu Hanifa is also the pupil of Imam Jaffer-e-Sadiq(a.s) and he himself admit that if he does not have attended Imam madrasa he will be nothing.

Imam, Ja'afar Ibn Muhammad Al-Sadiq (AS) was born in Madina on 17th Rabiul Awwal 83 Hijiri (702 AD). martyrd in Madina on 15th Shawwal, 148 Hijri (765 AD) at the age of 65.

It is known from various history books and various sources of Hadith that when Imam Sadiq (AS) was a young boy, he used to come to the schools and Madrasas(Seminaries) founded by his father Imam Muhammad-e-Baqir( a.s)and instead of learning as many other youngsters and older pupil did, he used to discuss serious matters of Fiqh and Jurisprudence with much older students of the Madrasas. In one such discourses when he was only 11 years old, when he entered a class room where pupils were discussing on the subject of astronomy, he pointed out to the surprise of everyone except his own father, that the earth cannot be flat, because of the way the sun rises in the East and sets in the west and day and night change in 24 hours, it cannot be possible. In his opinion the earth must be round; otherwise this would not have happened in such a precise manner. All the students were astonished but his father smiled and said nothing.

The above story was mentioned in a book compiled by Five French scholars at Strasbourg in France with the title, "The heart of the Scholarship." The book has been translated in Persian and Urdu and it is now being translated in English with possible references.

Disseminating knowledge and learning

Imam Jaffer-e-Sadiq(a.s) profound knowledge of religion and other sciences was famed throughout the entire Islamic world. People came from distant regions to learn from him. The number of his students reached over Four Thousand. Among them were scholars of Jurisprudence, Tafsir, Haidth such as Imam Noman bin Thabit, Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik Ibn Anas. Heads of other religions also came there to discuss with the Imams students many matters of dispute and on many occasions returned home embracing Islam. Sometimes he himself argued with the opponents especially atheists. Apart from religious sciences, he used to teach to some students mathematics, chemistry, medicine and astronomy. Jabir Ibn Hayyan, the famous pioneer of physics, chemistry and mathematics, was his disciple who wrote about four hundred treatises based on his mentor's instructions. The jurists who learnt from him and wrote several volumes of books on jurisprudence can be counted by the hundreds.

Perhaps the most interesting of all his pupils was Nauman bin Sabit known as Imam Abu Hanifa who gave public lectures at Kufa that attracted much attention. In giving decisions, he claimed the right to exercise the privilege of deduction (Qiyas) and of using his own judgment (Ra'y) to supplement the traditions and for this departure he was severely criticized by the scholars in Makka and Madina. His decisions were on the point of law of Islam; however he steadfastly refused to enter the service of the Government as judge. Thus it was as a literary or academic jurist that he was able to carry on his work in Kufa under both the Ummayads and the Abbasids. It is probable that he strongly sympathized with the Alids and resented the way in which they had been set aside. Masudi mentions in his history that once he had sent 10,000 Dinars to Zaid Ibn Ali to help him against the Ummayads.

One is surprised to observe that these two contemporary scholars were able to carry on teaching in their respective cities, Abu Hanifa in Kufa and Imam Ja'afar Sadiq) in Madina. The two men were on friendly terms with each other and often Abu Hanifa accepted the advice of his teacher Imam Ja'afar Sadiq (AS).And it is the famous saying of Imam Abu hanifa that the golden period he served as pupil of Imam save him from ignorance.

Ibn Khalikan relates a story about an anecdote that the Imam Ja'afar Sadiq (A.S) had with his contemporary jurist of Kufa. The Imam asked, "What would you say is the proper fine for one who breaks the front molars (Rubaiyat) of a deer"? Abu Hanifa answered; O' son of the Apostle of God I do not know the answer. To this the Imam replied, "Can you then pretend to learning and scholarship when you do not know that a deer has no front molars, but only the incisors" (Thanaya).

On another occasion, Abu Hanifa remarked that if the Imam did not teach three things he would be able to accept him.

1. Good is from God and evil is from the deeds of men, "whereas I say that men have no choice but both good and evil are from God."

2. In the final judgment the devil suffers in the fire," whereas I say that the fire will not burn him, in so much as the same material will not injure itself (the Devil being from fire)."

3. It is impossible to see God in this world or the next, "whereas I say that anyone who has existence may be seen, if not in this world, then in the next". At this point Shaikh Buhlul who was one of Imam's companions, but pretended to be a simple minded person, picked up a clod of earth and hit Abu Hanifa on the head, declaring as he made the hasty exit, that all three points are refuted. Abu Hanifa made a complaint about him to the caliph who called Buhlul before him and asked him, why you threw the clod of earth at Abu Hanifa. He answered, "I did not throw it". Abu Hanifa protested, "You did throw it". But Buhlul replied, "you yourself have maintained that evil is from God that men have no choice, so why do you blame me? And you have also said that the same material will not injure itself. The devil is from fire and fire of hell would not hurt him. Accordingly you are from dust of the earth, tell me how it could injure you? You have also claimed that you can see God as a proof of his existence. Show me the pain you are complaining about that exists in your head?"

Abu Hanifa had no answer to that and he eventually agreed to what Imam Ja'afar Sadiq (AS) taught about these things.

Nevertheless Abu Hanifa was highly respected by those friends of Ahlulbayt for they heartily endorsed a remark made by Abu Hanifa concerning Mansur and all such oppressors whether of the Banu Umayya or Banu Abbas. Abu Hanifa eloquently declared that if such men would build a Masjid and command him to the simple task of counting the bricks, he would not do it, "for they are dissolute (Fasiq) and the dissolute are not worthy of the authority of leadership (Majlisi,Tarikhul Aiemma). Ultimately Mansur heard this remark and cast Abu Hanifa into prison where he remained until his departure to another world.

Abu Hanifa's remarks were based on the Verse in the Qur'an (Surah II,V 118) where God said to Abraham," I am about to make thee an Imam to mankind", and Abraham asked, "of my offspring also", but God answered, "My covenant embraceth not the idolaters".

On the question of the freedom of will (Irada) which was much under discussion at the time, the Imam taught, "that God has decreed some things for us and He has likewise decreed some things through our agency, What He decreed for us or on our behalf He has concealed from us, but what He has decreed through our agency He has revealed to us. We are not concerned, therefore, so much with what he has decreed for us, as we are with what he has decreed through our agency."

As to the question of the power (Qadr) of directing one's own actions, the Imam took a middle position, which is neither compulsion (Jabr) nor committing (Tafviz) the choice to ourselves. He was accustomed to say in prayer, "O' God, tine is the praise that I give thee, and to thee is the excuse if I sin against thee. There is no work of merit on my own behalf, or on behalf of another, and in evil there is no excuse for me or for another".

Yakubi in his Tarikh remarks in regard to Imam Ja'afar Sadiq (AS) that, "it was customary for scholars who related anything from him to say 'the learned one informed us'." When we recall that Malik Ibn Anas (94-179) the author of Mawatta was a contemporary of the Imam Ja'afar Sadiq (AS), at least a century before the time of Bukhari and Muslim, it is significant to find that it is the Imam Ja'afar Sadiq (AS) who is credited with stating what came to be regarded as the most significant and important principle to observe in judging traditions: "What is in agreement with the Book of God, accept it, and whatever is contrary, reject it".

Yakubi also relates another saying of the Imam as follows:

"There are two friends, and whoever follows them will enter paradise", some one asked, "Who are they?" He said, "The acceptance of that which you dislike when God likes it, and the rejection of that which you like when God dislikes it."

Masudi, the famous historian, wrote one of the most important sayings of Imam Sadiq (AS) ascribed through Imam Ali (AS) who is said to have related that when God wished to establish the creation, the atoms of creatures and the beginning of all created things, He first made what he created in the form of small particles. This was before the earth and the heavens were created. God existed alone in His authority and power. So He cast forth a ray of light, a flame from His splendor and it was radiant. He scattered this light in the midst of invisible atoms, which He then united in the form of our Prophet. God most high then declared unto him, "You are the first of those who shall speak the one with power of choice and the one chosen. To you I have trusted my light and the treasure of my guidance. For your sake I will form spacious channels, give free course to the waters, and raise the heavens. For your sake I will give rewards and punishments, and assign men to Paradise or to the Fire. I will appoint the people of your household (Ahlulbayt) for guidance. I will bestow upon them the secrets of my knowledge. No truth will be hidden from them and no mystery concealed. I will designate them as my proof to mankind, as those who shall admonish men of my power and remind them of my Unity (Tawheed)". The light descended, the Imam Ja'afar continued, "upon our most noble men, and shown through our Imams, so that we are in fact the light of Heaven and of Earth. To us is salvation committed, and from us are the secrets of science derived, for we are the destination that all must strive to reach. Our Mehdi will be the final proof, the seal of the Imams, the Deliverer of the Imamat, the Apex of the Light, and the Source of all good work. Those who follow us will have our support in the hereafter."

Character and Virtues

Imam Sadiq (AS) was one of those infallible Nufus who were created by God to be models of moral excellence. The character and conduct of all those sages in different stages of their lives was the standard of excellence. The particular virtues of the Imam which were recorded by the historians included hospitality, charity, the helping of the needy in secrecy, the fair treatment of poor relatives, forgiveness, patience and fortitude.

Once a pilgrim visiting the Prophet's Mosque in Madina, fell asleep. On waking up, he hurriedly searched his belongings and found his purse which contained one thousand Dinars was missing. Looking around he saw the Imam was praying in one corner of the Mosque. He accused the Imam of having picked his purse. The Imam asked about its contents and was told that it contained one thousand Dinars. The Imam then asked the man to follow him to his house where he gave the man the same amount. When the stranger came back to the mosque satisfied, once more he checked his property and found that his purse was intact in another bundle. Greatly ashamed of his conduct, he came back to the Imam, apologized and asked him to take his money back. Imam replied with these words, "We never take back what we once give away, but if you feel guilty about it, give it to the poor of the town." The traveler gave all the money in Charity to the poor of Madina.

During the days of scarcity, when people tried to hoard food and other goods, Imam asked his household manager Trenchab, "The price of corn is rising day by day. How much corn is there in our warehouse," Trenchab replied that the Imam should not worry as there was a large quantity of corn in store. The Imam replied, "Give it away to the poor and let us face the situation along with others." Then he ordered that pure white wheat flour should not be used in his kitchen, and should be mixed with equal quantity's of oat flour. "We must share misfortune with the needy and the poor as long as it takes."


Imam martrd in the 10th year of the reign of Caliph Mansur, 148 Hijiri (765 AD). He had worn a signet ring with the inscription, "God is my master and my defense from His creation." It is mentioned by historians that on Caliph's orders he was given poison in grapes which caused his death.

Imam Ja'afar Sadiq (A.S) was buried in the cemetery of Baqi in Madina by the side of his father Imam Muhammad Baqir (A.S). Before the destruction of the Jantul-Baqi cemetery by the Wahabi regime in 1925(A.D){See Details in Website:-  }, the inscription on the tomb said, "Here is the Tomb of Imam Ja'afar Ibn Muhammad Al-Sadiq(A.S."



The person moving to help his Momin brothers is like the person who is walking between Safa and Marwa.

He who treats people kindly will be accepted as arbiter.

To trust everybody in times of injustice and cheating is disability.

To recognize the actuality of your friend, you should enrage him. If he keeps up his friendship, he is true friend lest, he is false.

Do not appreciate one's affection before you enrage him three times.

Do not trust your friend perfectly, because the knockdown of the trustful is incurable.

Islam is a definite rank. Faith is one rank higher than Islam. Conviction is one rank higher than faith. People have been given a rank lower than conviction.

The desire for the worldly pleasures causes grief and sadness. Abstinence from the worldly pleasures brings about the rest of both heart and body.

He who gains oppression is not gaining welfare. He who mistreats people should not complain when people mistreat him.

In homelands, exchanging visits is the means of association. In travel, correspondence is the means of association.

Shaking hands is the perfect greeting of the resident and embracement is the perfect greeting of the traveler.

A Muslim always has three characteristics: knowledge about the religion, good management of life, and perseverance in the faces of calamities.

An actual believer is that whose sexual appetite does not overcome him and whose stomach does not shame him.

A twenty-year friendship is kinship.

Favors should be done only to the highborn or the religious. Those who show gratitude are very few.

Enjoining good and forbidding evil should be practiced with a faithful believer that he would learn a lesson, or an ignorant that he would earn. Enjoining good and forbidding evil become surely worthless when they are applied to the powerful tyrants.

As some people showed ingratitude for Allah's graces, He changed the graces into crises. As other people showed steadfastness against the misfortunes that inflicted them, Allah changed the misfortunes into graces.

Imam al-Sadiq (AS) was asked about personality, he answered: Personality stands for that Allah should not see you in situations against which He warned, and miss you in situations of which He ordered.

Thank him who did you favor, and confer upon him who thanked you. Graces that are shown gratitude will not be removed while those that are shown ingratitude will not persist. Thanks increase the graces and saves against poverty.

To miss a need is better than asking it from other than its people. Bad mannerism in a misfortune is more catastrophic than the misfortune itself.

As a man asked him a short item of instruction that collects the welfare of this world and the world to come, the Holy Imam al-Sadiq (AS) said: Never tell untruths.

Imam al-Sadiq (AS) was asked about eloquence. He answered: Eloquence is to express the idea in as few as possible words. The eloquent is that who attains his demand in the least effort.

Debt is grief at night and humility in day.

If your worldly demands are attainable, you should check your religion.

Treat your fathers piously so that your sons will treat you piously. Keep yourselves away from the strange women so that your harem will be chaste.

Salutation is voluntary while responding is obligatory.

Do not answer those who speak before they greet you.

Shake hands, because this will confiscate malice.

Fear Allah even if to some extent. Construct a screen between Him and you even if transparent.

As for those who control themselves in rage, desire, fear, and lust, Allah will prevent Hell from burning their bodies.

Everything has limits. The limit of conviction is not to fear anything besides Allah.

The (Faithful) believer should enjoy eight characters; he should be venerable in shaking situations, steadfast against misfortunes, thankful in luxury, satisfied with what Allah has decided to him, avoid oppressing the enemies, avoid over tasking the associates, should fatigue his body, and make people feel glad with him.

Knowledge is the comrade of the faithful believer, clemency is his supporter, patience is the commander of his army, lenience is his brother, and charity is his father.

As for those who practice without guidance, they are like him who walks without choosing a definite path. The more he walks, the remoter he becomes.

He who recognizes Allah accurately will fear Him. He who fears Allah accurately will disregard the worldly pleasures.

The actual fearful is that who cannot speak due to the intensity of fear.

We love those who are intelligent. Knowledgeable, perceptive, expert, clement, courteous, patient, veracious, and loyal. Allah gave the noble characters exclusively to the prophets (AS). He who enjoys such characters should thank Allah for them. He who does not enjoy them should supplicate to Allah for them. As he was asked about these noble characters, Imam al-Sadiq (AS) said: The noble characters are piety, satisfaction, patience, gratefulness, clemency, pudency, generosity, bravery, enthusiasm, veracity, charity, fulfillment of the trusts, conviction, good mannerism, and chivalry.

The firmest handle of faith is to love, hate, give, and deprive-all for Allah's sake.

The Divine Throne will be shaken when one makes Allah the witness of a false matter.

He whose conducts are bad is tormenting himself.

Favor is well-known. Except its reward, nothing is better than doing favor.

The most effective soldiers of Eblis are women and rage.

The world is the believer's jail, patience is his fortress, and Paradise is his abode. The world is the disbeliever's paradise, grave is his jail, and Hell is his abode.

Whenever you see a servant (of Allah) pursuing people's flaws and neglecting his own flaws, you should then realize that he has been trapped (by the Shaitan).

The server of food who thanks (Allah for so) will be rewarded as same as those who fast just for gaining the rewards of Allah, and the individual who is cured and thanks (Allah for curing him) will be rewarded as same as the diseased one who is steadfast against that disease (for the sake of Allah).

You should not trust the betrayer after you had tested him and you should not accuse him whom you trusted.

Fear of Allah is sufficient knowledge and deceit is sufficient ignorance.

The best adoration is to know Allah and behave humbly with Him.

Everything has its tax and the tax of knowledge is to teach its people.

Beware of associating with the lowly, because the association with them will never lead to welfare.

To wear rings on the fingers is a prophetic tradition.

The most favorable friend to me is that who shows me my flaws.

Friendship is nil unless its limits are kept. He who does not keep these limits should not be regarded as friend. The first limit is that the inner self and the appearance should be identical. The second limit is that the friend should regard your goodness as his goodness and your evil as his evil. The third limit of friendship is that a position or fortunes should not change the friend's relation with his friends. The fourth limit is that the friend should not deprive his friend of anything that he is capable of doing. The fifth limit which is the most comprehensive is that the friend should never leave his friend alone in calamities.

There is no difference between depositing a trust with a betrayer or a negligent.

Imam al-Sadiq (AS) said to his companion Mufaddal: I instruct you to stick on six characters and relate them to my adherents - Shia. You should fulfill the trust of him who entrusts you with anything. You should like for your brother whatever you like for yourself. You should know that every matter has an end; therefore, you should beware of the outcomes of matters. Similarly, every matter has a sudden event; hence, beware of the sudden events. Beware of climbing an easy mountain if its slope is uneven. Never promise your brother of a matter that you cannot fulfill.

People are equal like the teeth of a comb. With the support of his brothers, a man can be regarded as great. No goodness is expected in the friendship of those who do not like for their friends whatever they like for themselves.

You should regard him who became angry with you three times without addressing any bad saying to you as a true friend.

If a man is more than thirty year old, he is middle-aged. If he is more than forty year old, he is old man.

Whenever Allah opens a door to the worldly pleasures, He will open to acquisitiveness.

The believer is strange in this world. He should not feel worry of its humility and should not compete with its people for gaining its honor.

Hasty walking removes the believer's brightness and extinguishes their illumination.

Allah surely hates the oppressive wealthy man.

Rage eliminates the intelligence of the wise. He who cannot control his rage will not be able to control his mind.

The niggardly is that who gains wealth illegally and spends it unsuitably.

Good mannerism is a part of the religion. It increases the earnings.

Morals are of two forms: one is intent while the other is nature. Imam al-Sadiq (AS) was asked, "Which of them is better than the other?" He answered: The intentional morals are better than the natural, because the owner of natural morals cannot change them, while the owner of the intentional morals is preserving the acts of obedience (to Allah).

The actual generous charitable individual is that who spends his wealth for fulfilling the rights of Allah.

You should know that I will fulfill the trust of even the killer of Imam Ali (AS) if he deposits something with me or seeks my advice of consultation.

Sufian said: I asked Abu Abdullah (AS) whether it is acceptable to praise oneself or not. He answered: It is acceptable to praise oneself in cases of necessity. Joseph the prophet (AS) said: Put me in charge of the treasuries of the land. I know how to manage them. (Holy Qur'an 12:55). The virtuous servant (of Allah) also said: I am a trustworthy advisor for you. (Holy Qur'an 7:68).

Mohammed bin Qays said: I asked Abu Abdullah (AS) whether it is acceptable to sell weapon to the two parties both of whom are wrong. Holy Imam (AS) said: Sell to them only defensive weapons: armors, shields, helmets, and the like.

Allah gives the worldly pleasures to those whom He loves as well as those whom He dislikes, while He gives the faith only to whom He selects among the creatures.

Abu Baseer related: I asked Abu Abdullah (AS) about faith and Islam. He answered: Faith is the avoidance of acts of disobedience to Allah. Islam is to practice our rites and slaughter animals as we do.

Bad-temperedness, bad humor, envy, obduracy, fabrication and oppression these six characters should never be in the believers behavior.

The believer should live between two fears the past sin that he does not know what Allah will do about it and the remaining days that he does not know what misfortunes he will encounter during them. Thus, the believer begins his day fearfully and ends his day fearfully. Except fear, nothing mends the believer.

You will not be regarded as (true) believers before you see the misfortunes as graces and the luxury as disaster.

The possession of four thousand dirhams is fortune. The possession of twelve thousand dirhams is treasuring up. Twenty thousand dirhams cannot be amassed by legal ways. The possessor of thirty thousand dirhams will surely be suffering perdition. The possessors of one hundred thousand dirhams are definitely not reckoned with our adherents - Shia.

The best deeds of the servants are three: they are to treat the believers fairly, to console the friends, and to mention Allah in every situation. Some asked: "What is the meaning of mentioning Allah in every situation?" The Imam (AS) answered: This means to mention Allah when you want to commit a sin so that He will prevent you from committing it.

Younus related: Before Imam al-Sadiq (AS) I said: My loyalty to you - the Holy Prophet's family - and recognition of your rights are most favorable to me than this world with all of its insides." I noticed the Holy Imam (AS) was enraged. After a while, he (AS) said: O Younus, you have evaluated us in an improper measurement. What is the world and what are its insides? It is no more than relief of a trouble or screening of a defect. By loyalty to us, you are gaining the endless life.

In misfortunes, Imam al-Sadiq (AS) used to say: All praise is due to Allah Who did not make my misfortune in my religious affairs. All praise is due to Allah Who could, if He willed, make my misfortune more catastrophic than what it is now. All praise is due to Allah for the matter that He willed to be, and it was as He willed.

If the world advances to some people, it will garb them with the others' charms. If it leaves some people, it usurps their own charms.

Daughters are advantages and sons are graces. You will be rewarded for the advantages and asked about the graces.

If a believer leaves behind a sheet of paper on which some knowledge is written, this very sheet of paper will serve as a wall between him and the Hell and against each letter written on it, Allah will give him a city in a paradise seven times this world.

If the sins of a believer were as much as the sand in the desert of the froth of the sea, Allah would forgive them all; but do not become bold (in sinning, mistaking His mercy for weakness).


Essay Written Comipled & Contributed By:-

S  H  Bangash.




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 äÿ ǁäی Òäϐی ˜ÿ ÇÈÊÏÇÆی ÈÇÑÀ یÇ äÏÑÀ ÓÇá ǁäÿ ÌÏ ÈÒѐæÇÑ ÇãÇã Òیä ÇáÚÇÈÏیä ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã ÇæÑ ÇäیÓ ÓÇá ǁäÿ æÇáÏ ÇãÇã ãÍãÏ ÈÇÞÑ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã ˜ÿ ÒیÑ ÓÇیÀ ÒÇÑÿ ۔

یÛãÈÑ Ç˜Ñã Õáی ÇááÀ ÚáیÀ æ ÂáÀ æ Óáã äÿ ªŠÿ ÇãÇã ˜ÿ äÇã ÇæÑ áÞÈ ˜ÿ ÈÇÑÿ ãیŸ ÝÑãÇیÇ Àÿ ÌÈ ãیÑÇ ÈیŠÇ ÌÚÝÑ یÏÇ Àæ Êæ ÇÓ ˜Ç äÇã ÕÇÏÞ Ñ˜ªäÇ ۔  ˜ÿ ÇáÞÇÈ ÕÇÏÞ ¡ ãÕÏÞ ¡ ãÍÞÞ ¡ ˜ÇÔÝ ÇáÍÞÇÆÞ ¡ ÝÇÖá ¡ ØÇÀÑ ¡ ÞÇÆã ¡ ãäÌی ÇæÑ ÕÇÈÑ ÀیŸ ۔ ÌȘÀ ˜äیÊ ÇÈæÚÈÏÇááÀ ¡ ÇÈæ ÇÓãÇÚیá ÇæÑ ÇÈæ ãæÓی Àÿ ۔

 ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã äÿ ǁäÿ æÇáÏ ÈÒѐæÇÑ ˜ی ÔÀÇÏÊ ˜ÿ ÈÚÏ Ç˜ÊیÓ ÓÇá ˜ی ÚãÑ ãیŸ Çی˜ Óæ æÏÀ ÀÌÑی ÞãÑی ˜æ ÚæÇã ˜ی ÀÏÇیÊ æ ÑÀäãÇÆی ˜Ç ÝÑیÖÀ ÓäȪÇáÇ ÇæÑ ãäÕÈ ÇãÇãÊ Ñ ÝÇÆÒ ÀæÆÿ  ˜Ç ÏæÑ ÇãÇãÊ æäÊیÓ ÈÑÓæŸ Ñ ãÍیØ Àÿ ۔ Óä Çی˜ Óæ æÏÀ Óÿ Çی˜ Óæ ÈÊیÓ ÀÌÑی ÞãÑی ʘ Çãæی ÏæÑ Í˜æãÊ ÊªÇ ÌȘÀ Çی˜ Óæ ÈÊیÓ Óÿ áÿ ˜Ñ Çی˜ Óæ ÇšÊÇáیÓ ÀÌÑی ÞãÑی یÚäی  ˜ی ÔÀÇÏÊ Ê˜ ÚÈÇÓی ͘ãÑÇŸ ÈÑÓÑÇÞÊÏÇÑ Êªÿ ۔

ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã ˜ÿ ÒãÇäÿ ˜æ Úáãی ÇöÑÊÞÇÁ ÇæÑ ÊÑÞی ˜Ç ÒãÇäÀ ˜ÀÇ ÌÇÓ˜ÊÇ Àÿ ˜یæä˜À ÚæÇã æ ÎæÇÕ ÀÑ Çی˜ ÇÓ ÒãÇäÿ ãیŸ ÊÍÕیáö Úáã ˜ی ØÑÝ ãÊæÌÀ ʪÇ۔ ÇæÑ ÇÓ ÒãÇäÿ ˜Ç ãÇÍæá ˜ÇãáÇð ÇÓÑÇÑö ÞÑÂäی ˜ی ÊÈáیÛ ÇæÑ Çä˜ÔÇÝ ˜ÿ áÆÿ ÓÇҐÇÑ ÊªÇ۔ ÇöÓ Úáãی ãÇÍæá Àی ˜ی æÌÀ Óÿ ÇãÇã ˜æ ÇÓÑÇÑö Úáæãö Ïیäی ˜ÿ ÍÊی ÇáæÓÚ Çöä˜ÔÇÝ ˜Ç ãæÞÚ ãáÇ۔  ˜ÿ ͘یãÇäÀ ˜áãÇÊ Úáãی æØÈی äÙÑیÇÊ ÇæÑ Ïیäی ÈیÇäÇÊ ˜ی õÑÌæÔ äÀÑ Êªی Ìæ ÊÔäÇäö ãÚÑÝÊ ˜æ ÓیÑÇÈ ˜ÑÊی áی ÌÇ ÑÀی ʪی۔ ÊÔäÇäö ÏÇäÔ ÇæÑ ÈیãÇÑÇäö ÌÀá ÏæÑ ÏÑæÇÒÿ Óÿ ÂÊÿ ÇæÑ ÌÀÇáÊ ˜ی ÈیãÇÑی Óÿ ÔÝÇیÇÈ ÀæÊÿ۔ ãæÑÎیä  Óÿ ÑæÇیÊ ˜ÑÊÿ ÇæÑ ÏÇäÔæÑ ˜ÊÇÈی ÕæÑÊ ãیŸ  ˜ÿ ÝÑãæÏÇÊ ÌãÚ ˜ÑÊÿ ʪÿ ÍÊیٰ ˜À ÍÝÇÙ ÇæÑ ãÍÏËیä ÌÈ ˜ª ÈیÇä ˜ÑÊÿ Êæ ÍæÇáÀ ÏیÊÿ ˜À ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ äÿ یÀ ÇÑÔÇÏ ÝÑãÇیÇÀÿ¡ ÇÈ À㠁 ˜ÿ ÏÑیÇÆÿ ͘ãÊ ˜ÿ äÏ ÞØÑÿ ÇæÑ áÓÊÇäö ØÈ ˜ÿ ªæá äÀÇیÊ ÇöÎÊÕÇÑ Óÿ یÔ ˜Ñ ÑÀÿ ÀیŸ۔ ãõÚÇÑÝö ÇöãÇã ÇÒ ˜ÊÈ ÛیÑ äیÓÊ Ìæ áæ ÚÑÈ ˜ÿ ãÇÍæá ÇæÑ ÚÑÈ ˜ی ÊÇÑیÎ Óÿ æÇÞÝ ÀیŸ æÀ ÎæÈ ÌÇäÊÿ ÀیŸ ˜À ãÚÇÑÝ æ Úáæã ÇãÇ㠁 ˜ÿ ÀãÚÕÑ ÚÞáÇÁ ˜ی ÊÚáیãÇÊ Óÿ ÈÇá˜á ãÎÊáÝ ÀیŸ áÀÐÇ ÙÇÀÑ ÀæÇ ˜À  äÿ ˜Óی ãÏÑÓÀ ãیŸ ÊÚáیã ÍÇÕá äÀیŸ ˜ی ÇæÑ äÀ ˜Óی ÇõÓÊÇÏ ˜ÿ ÓÇãäÿ ÒÇäæÆÿ ÇóÏÈ ÊÀÀ ˜یÇ۔  ˜Ç Úáã۔ Úöáãö äÈæÊ ˜Ç Çی˜ Ñ Êæ Àÿ ÌÓ ˜Ç ÇóÕá ÓэÔãÆÀö æÍی ÇæÑ یÛÇãö ÎÏÇæäÏی Àÿ۔ ÇÓی ÓÑ ÔãÀ ÇæÑ Úáã äÈæÊی ˜Ç ϪÇÑÇ ÍÖÑÊ Úáی ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã ÀیŸ Ìä Óÿ ÝÑÒäÏÿ ÈÀ ÝÑÒäÏÿ ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã ʘ ÈÀ ÝیÖÇäö æÍی ÀæäÊÇ Àÿ۔ ãÎÊÕÑ یÀ ˜À ãÚÇÑÝö ÌÚÝÑی¡ ÇóÓÑÇÑ ÞÑÂäی ˜Ç Çی˜ ÑÇÒ۔ ÇäæÇÑö äÈæÊ ˜Ç Çی˜ äæÑ۔ ÝیÖÇäö ÇãÇãÊ ˜Ç Çی˜ ÑæÔä ÝیÖ Àÿ۔ ÇóÈ Àã ǁäÿ ÏÚæÿ ˜ÿ ËÈæÊ ãیŸ ÍÖÑÊ ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ˜ÿ ˜ª ØÈی ãäÇÙÑÇÊ äÞá ˜Ñ ÑÀÿ ÀیŸ ÇæÑ ÝیÕáÀ ÞÇÑÆیä æ äÇÙÑیä ˜ی ÚÞá Óáیã Ñ ªæšÊÿ ÀیŸ۔ ØÈö ÀäÏی:۔ ØöÈö ÀäÏی ’ÊãÇã ÈیãÇÑیæŸ ˜ی Ìš ÇæÑ ÇÕá ˜ËÇÝÊ ö Îæä ˜æ ŠªÀÑÇÊی Àÿ ÇæÑ ãõÕÝی Îæä ÇóÏæیÀ Óÿ ÇÓ˜Ç ÚáÇÌ ˜ÑÊی Àÿ۔ ÈیãÇÑیÇŸ ǐэÀ ãÎÊáÝ ÀæÊی ÀیŸ ãÑ æÀ ÕÑÝ ÊÕÝیÆÀ Îæä Óÿ ÓÈ ˜Ç ÚáÇÌ ˜ÑÊی Àÿ۔ ÇóØÈÇÁ ÀäÏی ãÇÏÀö ÝÇÓÏ Óÿ ÞØÚ äÙÑ ˜Ñ˜ÿ ÊÕÝیÆÀ Îæä ˜ی ˜æÔÔ ˜ÑÊÿ ÀیŸ۔ ˜ËیÝ Îæä ˜ی ˜ËÇÝÊ ˜ÿ ÏõæÑ ˜Ñäÿ ˜ی ØÑÝ Êæ ãÊæÌÀ äÀیŸ ÀæÊÿ Èá˜À ÊÇÒÀ ÇæÑ äیÇ Ç˜ Îæä یÏÇ ˜Ñäÿ ˜ی ˜æÔÔ ˜ÑÊÿ ÀیŸ۔۔۔۔۔ ØÈö ÀäÏی ãیŸ ÑÀیÒ ÒیÇÏÀ ÊÑ ÝÇÞÀ ˜ی ÕæÑÊ ãیŸ Àÿ۔ ãÑ ÇÓáÇã ãیŸ ÑÀیÒ ÕÑÝ Çä یÒæŸ Óÿ Àÿ Ìæ ãõÖÑ ÀæŸ۔

ÌÈ Â ãäÕÈ ÇãÇãÊ Ñ ÝÇÆÒ ÀæÆÿ Êæ ÇãæیæŸ ÇæÑ ÚÈÇÓیæŸ ˜ÿ ÏÑãیÇä ÇÞÊÏÇÑ ˜ی ÑÓÀ ˜Ôی ÌÇÑی ʪی ÌÓ ˜ی ÈäÇ Ñ Çãæی ͘ãÑÇäæŸ ˜ی ÊæÌÀ ÎÇäÏÇä ÑÓÇáÊ Óÿ ˜Óی ÍÏ Ê˜ ÀŠ Æی ÇæÑ ÎÇäÏÇä ÑÓÇáÊ ˜ÿ ÇÝÑÇÏ äÿ ÇãæیæŸ ˜ÿ Ùáã æ ÓÊã Óÿ ˜Óی ÍÏ Ê˜ Ó˜æä ˜Ç ÓÇäÓ áیÇ ۔ ÇÓی ÏæÑ ãیŸ ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã äÿ ÇÓáÇãی ÊÚáیãÇÊ ˜ی ÊÑæیÌ ˜ÿ áÆÿ Èÿ äÇÀ ˜æÔÔیŸ ÇäÌÇã ÏیŸ ÇæÑ ãÏیäÿ ãیŸ ãÓÌÏ äÈæی ÇæÑ ˜æÝÀ ÔÀÑ ãیŸ ãÓÌÏ ˜æÝÀ ˜æ یæäیæÑÓŠی ãیŸ ÊÈÏیá ˜ÑÏیÇ ÌÀÇŸ ÇäÀæŸ äÿ ÀÒÇÑæŸ ÔǐÑÏæŸ ˜ی ÊÑÈیÊ ˜ی ÇæÑ Çی˜ ÚÙیã Úáãی æ ݘÑی ÊÍÑی˜ ˜ی ÈäیÇÏ Çáی ÇÓ ÊÍÑی˜ ˜æ ÎæÈ ªáäÿ ªæáäÿ ˜ÿ ãæÇÞÚ ãáÿ ۔

ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã ˜Ç ÒãÇäÀ Úáæã æ Ýäæä ˜ی ÊæÓیÚ ÇæÑ ÏæÓÑی ãáÊæŸ ˜ÿ ÚÞÇÆÏ æ äÙÑیÇÊ ÇæÑ ÊÀÐیÈ æ ËÞÇÝÊ ˜ÿ ÓÇʪ ÇÓáÇãی ÇݘÇÑ æ äÙÑیÇÊ ÇæÑ ÊÀÐیÈ æ ËÞÇÝÊ ˜ÿ ÊÞÇÈá ÇæÑ Úáãی ÈÍË æ ãäÇÙÑÿ ˜ÿ ÇÚÊÈÇÑ Óÿ ÎÇÕ ÇÀãیÊ ˜Ç ÍÇãá Àÿ ۔ ÇÓی ÒãÇäÿ ãیŸ ÊÑÌãÿ ˜ÿ Ýä ˜æ Èšی ÊیÒی Óÿ ÊÑÞی ÍÇÕá ÀæÆی ÇæÑ ÚÞÇÆÏ æ ÝáÓÝÿ ÏæÓÑی ÒÈÇäæŸ Óÿ ÚÑÈی ãیŸ ÊÑÌãÀ ÀæÆÿ ۔

 ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã ˜Ç ÒãÇäÀ ÊÇÑیÎ ÇÓáÇã ˜Ç ÍÓÇÓ ÊÑیä ÏæÑ ˜ÀÇ ÌÇ Ó˜ÊÇ Àÿ ۔ ÇÓ ÒãÇäÿ ãیŸ Çی˜ ØÑÝ Êæ ÇãæیæŸ ÇæÑ ÚÈÇÓیæŸ ˜ÿ ÏÑãیÇä ÇÞÊÏÇÑ ˜ی ÑÓÀ ˜Ôی ÌÇÑی ʪی ÇæÑ ÏæÓÑی ÚáæیæŸ ˜ی Ȫی ãÓáÍ ÊÍÑی˜یŸ ÌÇÑی ʪیŸ ۔

 äÿ ÀãیÔÀ ÚæÇã ˜æ ͘ãÑÇäæŸ ˜ی ÈÏÚäæÇäیæŸ ÇæÑ ÛáØ ÍјÊæŸ äیÒ ÛیÑÇÎáÇÞی æ ÇÓáÇãی ÓѐÑãیæŸ Óÿ ÇÀ ˜یÇ ۔

 äÿ ÚæÇã ˜ÿ ÚÞÇÆÏ æ ÇݘÇÑ ˜ی ÇÕáÇÍ ÇæÑ Ý˜Ñی Ô˜æ˜ æ ÔÈÀÇÊ ÏæÑ ˜Ñ˜ÿ ÇÓáÇã ÇæÑ ãÓáãÇäæŸ ˜ی ݘÑی ÈäیÇÏæŸ ˜æ ãÓÊ͘㠘Ñäÿ ˜ی ˜æÔÔ ˜ی ÇæÑ ÇÀá ÈیÊ ÚáیÀã ÇáÓáÇã ˜ی ÝÞÀ æ ÏÇäÔ ˜æ ÇÓ ÞÏÑ ÝÑæÛ ÏیÇ ÇæÑ ÇÓáÇãی Ç͘Çã æ ÔیÚÀ ãÐÀÈ ˜ی ÊÚáیãÇÊ ˜æ ÏäیÇ ãیŸ ÇÊäÇ ªیáÇیÇ ˜À ãÐÀÈ ÔیÚÀ äÿ ÌÚÝÑی ãÐÀÈ ˜ÿ äÇã Óÿ ÔÀÑÊ ÇÎÊیÇÑ ˜Ñáی ۔ ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã Óÿ ÌÊäی ÇÍÇÏیË ÑÇæیæŸ äÿ äÞá ˜ی ÀیŸ ÇÊäی ˜Óی ÇæÑ ÇãÇã Óÿ äÞá äÀیŸ ˜یŸ ۔

ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã Óÿ ˜ÓÈ ÝیÖ ˜Ñäÿ æÇáÿ ÔǐÑÏæŸ ˜ی ÊÚÏÇÏ ÀÒÇÑæŸ ãیŸ Àÿ Ìä ãیŸ ÀÑ ã˜ÊÈ Ý˜Ñ Óÿ ÊÚáÞ Ñ˜ªäÿ æÇáÿ áæ ÔÇãá ÀیŸ ۔  ˜ÿ ããÊÇÒ ÔǐÑÏæŸ ãیŸ ÀÔÇã Èä ͘㡠ãÍãÏ Èä ãÓáã ¡ ÇÈÇä Èä ÊÝáÈ ¡ ÀÔÇã Èä ÓÇáã ¡ ãÝÕá Èä ÚãÑ ÇæÑ ÌÇÈÑÈä ÍیÇä ˜Ç äÇã ÎÇÕ ØæÑ Óÿ áیÇ ÌÇ Ó˜ÊÇ Àÿ ۔ Çä ãیŸ Óÿ ÀÑ Çی˜ äÿ ÈšÇ äÇ㠁یÏÇ ˜یÇ ãËÇá ˜ÿ ØæÑ Ñ ÀÔÇã Èä ͘ã äÿ ǘÊیÓ ˜ÊÇÈیŸ ÇæÑ ÌÇÈÑÈä ÍیÇä äÿ Ïæ Óæ ÒÇÆÏ ˜ÊÇÈیŸ ãÎÊáÝ Úáæã æ Ýäæä ãیŸ ÊÍÑیÑ ˜ی ÀیŸ ۔ ÌÇÈÑÈä ÍیÇä ˜æ Úáã ˜یãیÇ ãیŸ Èšی ÔÀÑÊ ÍÇÕá ÀæÆی ÇæÑ æÀ ÈÇÈÇÆÿ Úáã ˜یãیÇ ˜ÿ äÇã Óÿ ãÔÀæÑ ÀیŸ ۔ ÇÀá ÓäÊ ˜ÿ ÏÑãیÇä ãÔÀæÑ ÇÑæŸ ã˜ÇÊÈ Ý˜Ñ ˜ÿ ÇãÇã ÈáÇæÇÓØÀ یÇ ÈÇáæÇÓØÀ ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã ˜ÿÔǐÑÏæŸ ãیŸ  ÔãÇÑ ÀæÊÿ ÀیŸ ÎÇÕ ØæÑ Ñ ÇãÇã ÇÈæÍäیÝÀ äÿ ÊÞÑیÈÇ" ÏæÓÇá ʘ ÈÑÇÀ ÑÇÓÊ Â Óÿ ˜ÓÈ ÝیÖ ˜یÇ ۔   ˜ÿ Úáãی ãÞÇã ˜Ç ÇÚÊÑÇÝ ˜ÑÊÿ ÀæÆÿ ÇãÇã ÇÈæÍäیÝÀ äÿ ˜ÀÇ Àÿ : " ãیŸ äÿ ÌÚÝÑ ÇÈä ãÍãÏ Óÿ ÒیÇÏÀ šªÇ á˜ªÇ ˜æÆی ÇæÑ ÔÎÕ äÀیŸ Ïی˜ªÇ۔" 

Çی˜ ÇæÑ ãÞÇã Ñ ÇãÇã ÇÈæÍäیÝÀ äÿ ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã ˜ی ÎÏãÊ ãیŸ ÒÇÑÿ ÀæÆÿ Ïæ ÓÇáæŸ ˜ÿ ÈÇÑÿ ãیŸ ˜ÀÇ :

                                    áæáÇ ÇáÓäÊÇä ۔ ᪘ äÚãÇä

                                    ÇÑ یÀ ÏæÓÇá äÀ ÀæÊÿ Êæ äÚãÇä Àáǘ ÀæÌÇÊÇ

ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã ˜ی ÓیÑÊ ÇæÑ ÇÎáÇÞی ˜ãÇáÇÊ ˜ÿ ÈÇÑÿ ãیŸ ãæÑÎیä äÿ ÈÀÊ ˜ª á˜ªÇ Àÿ ۔

 ˜ی Çی˜ ÇÀã ÎÕæÕیÊ یÀ ʪی ˜À  áææŸ ˜ÿ ÓÇʪ ÇäÊÀÇÆی ãÍÈÊ ÇæÑ ãÀÑÈÇäی ˜ÿ ÓÇʪ یÔ ÂÊÿ ʪÿ ÇæÑ ÍÇÌÊ ãäÏæŸ ˜ی ÖÑæÑÊæŸ ˜æ æÑÇ ˜یÇ ˜ÑÊÿ ʪÿ ÇæÑ áææŸ ˜æ Ȫی ǁäی ÈÇÊæŸ ˜ی äÕیÍÊ ˜ÑÊÿ ʪÿ ۔  ÝÑãÇÊÿ ÀیŸ :

ǁäÿ ÑÔÊÿ ÏÇÑæŸ ˜ÿ ÓÇʪ ÇÍÓÇä ˜Ñæ ÇæÑ Çäÿ ȪÇÆیæŸ ˜ÿ ÓÇʪ äی˜ی ˜Ñæ ÇÀÿ æÀ ÓáÇã ˜Ñäÿ یÇ ÎäÏÀ یÔÇäی ˜ÿ ÓÇʪ ÓáÇã ˜Ç ÌæÇÈ Ïیäÿ ˜ی ÕæÑÊ ãیŸ Àی ˜یæŸ äÀ Àæ ۔

 ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã ˜ی Òäϐی ˜æ Êیä ÇÏæÇÑ ãیŸ ÊÞÓیã ˜یÇ ÌÇ Ó˜ÊÇ Àÿ ۔ ÀáÇ ÏæÑ æÀ Àÿ Ìæ  äÿ ǁäÿ ÏÇÏÇ ÇãÇã  Òیä ÇáÚÇÈÏیä  ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã ÇæÑ æÇáÏ ÇãÇã ãÍãÏ ÈÇÞÑ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã ˜ÿ ÒیÑ ÓÇیÀ ÒÇÑÇ یÀ ÏæÑ Óä ÊÑÇÓی ÀÌÑی Óÿ áÿ ˜Ñ Çی˜ Óæ æÏÀ ÀÌÑی ÞãÑی ʘ ªیáÇ ÀæÇ Àÿ ۔

ÏæÓÑÇ ÏæÑ Çی˜ Óæ æÏÀ ÀÌÑی Óÿ Çی˜ Óæ ÇáیÓ ÀÌÑی ÞãÑی Ñ ãÍیØ Àÿ ÇÓ ÏæÑ ãیŸ ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã ˜æ ÇÓáÇãی Úáæã æ ãÚÇÑÝ ªیáÇäÿ ˜Ç ȪсæÑ ãæÞÚ ãáÇ ÌÓ Óÿ  äÿ ȪсæÑ ÝÇþÆÏÀ ÇŠªÇیÇ ۔ ÇÓ ÏæÑ ãیŸ  äÿ ÇÑÀÒÇÑ Óÿ ÒÇÆÏ ÔǐÑÏæŸ ˜ی ÊÑÈیÊ ˜ی ÇæÑ ã˜ÊÈ ÔیÚÀ ˜æ ÚÑæÌ Ñ ÀäÇیÇ ۔ ÊیÓÑÇ ÏæÑ ÇãÇã ˜ی ÂÎÑی Šª ÓÇá ˜ی Òäϐی Ñ ãÔÊãá Àÿ ۔ ÇÓ ÏæÑ ãیŸ  Ñ ÚÈÇÓی ÎáیÝÀ ãäÕæÑ ÏæÇäیÞی ˜ی ͘æãÊ  ˜Ç ÓÎÊ ÏÈÇÄ ÊªÇ ÇæÑ Â ˜ی ÀÑ ÞÓã ˜ی äÞá æ ÍÑ˜Ê Ñ ãÓÊÞá äÙÑ Ñ˜ªی ÌÇÊی ʪی ۔ ÚÈÇÓیæŸ äÿ æä˜À ÎÇäÏÇä یÛãÈÑ ˜ی ÍãÇیÊ æ ØÑÝÏÇÑی ˜ÿ äÚÑÿ ˜ی š ãیŸ ÇÞÊÏÇÑ ÍÇÕá ˜یÇ ÊªÇ ÔÑæÚ ÔÑæÚ ãیŸ ÚÈÇÓیæŸ äÿ ÇãÇã ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã Ñ ÏÈÇÄ äÀیŸ ÇáÇ ÇæÑ ÇäÀیŸ Êä äÀیŸ ˜یÇ áی˜ä ÚÈÇÓیæŸ äÿ ÂÀÓÊÀ ÂÀÓÊÀ ǁäÿ ÞÏã ÌãÇäÿ ÇæÑ ÇÞÊÏÇÑ ãÖÈæØ ˜Ñäÿ ˜ÿ ÈÚÏ ÇãæیæŸ ˜ی ÑæÔ ÇäÇ áی ÇæÑ ÇÆãÀ ãÚÕæãیä ÚáیÀã ÇáÓáÇã ÇæÑ Çä ˜ÿ ãÍÈیä ˜æ Êä ˜Ñäÿ ÇæÑ Çä Ñ Ùáã æ ÓÊã ˜Ñäÿ ˜Ç ÓáÓáÀ ÔÑæÚ ˜ÑÏیÇ ÇæÑ ÇÓ ãیŸ æÀ ÇãæیæŸ ˜æ Ȫی یªÿ ªæš Æÿ ۔



ÚáÇãÀ ÚÈÏÇáÑÍãä ãáÇ ÌÇãی ÑÍãÊ ÇááÀ ÚáیÀ äÿ ǁäی ãÔÀæÑ ˜ÊÇÈ " ÔæÇÀÏ ÇáäÈæÊ " ãیŸ ÂÆãÀ ØÇÀÑیä ÚáیÀãÇ ÇáÓáÇã ˜ی ǘËÑ ˜ÑÇãÇÊ ˜Ç Ð˜Ñ ˜یÇ ÀیãáÇ ÌÇãی ÇیÓÿ ÚÇÔÞ ÑÓæá ÇæÑ ÍÈ ÏÇÑ Âá ÑÓæá ʪÿ ˜À ãÑæی Àÿ ˜À  ÌÈ ÈÇѐÇÀ ÑÓÇáÊ ãیŸ ÍÇÖÑ Àæäÿ ˜یáÆÿ ÂÆÿ Êæ ÍÖæÑ Ç˜Ñã äÿ æÇáی ãÏیäÀ ˜æ ÎæÇÈ ãیŸ ͘ã ÏیÇ ˜À

" ãیÑÿ ÚÇÔÞ ˜æ ÔÀÑ ˜ÿ ÈÇÀÑ Ñæ˜ áیÇ ÌÇÆÿ æÑäÀ ÌÓ ÌÐÈ æ˜یÝ ãیŸ æÀ  ÑÀÇ Àÿ ã̪ÿ ÇÓ ˜ی Ïá ÏÀی ˜یáÆÿ äÈÏ ÎÖÑی Óÿ ÈÇÀÑ ÂäÇ šÿ Ç "

ÇÓ æÇÞÚÀ Óÿ ÚáÇãÀ ÌÇãی ˜ی ÚÙãÊ ˜Ç ÇäÏÇÒÀ ˜یÇ ÌÇ Ó˜ÊÇ Àÿ ãáÇ ÌÇãی äÿ ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ˜ی ˜ÑÇãÇÊ Èªی ÈیÇä ˜ی ÀیŸ Çä ãیŸ äÏ ˜æ ÈÍæÇáÀ ˜ÊÇÈ " Ð˜Ñ ÇÀá ÈیÊ " ãæáÝÀ ãÍãÏ ÑÝیÞ ÈŠ ÕÇÍÈ ÇÓ ˜ÊÇÈ ˜ی ÒیäÊ äÇäÿ ˜Ç ÔÑÝ ÍÇÕá ˜یÇ ÌÇÊÇ Àÿ ۔

˜ÑÇãÊ äãÈÑ ۱

Çی˜ Ïä ãäÕæÑ äÿ ǁäÿ ÏÑÈÇä ˜æ ÀÏÇیÊ ˜ی ˜À ÍÖÑÊ ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ˜æ ãیÑی ÇÓ Àääÿ Óÿ Àáی ÔÀیÏ ˜Ñ ÏیäÇ ÇÓی Ïä ÍÖÑÊ ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ÊÔÑیÝ áÇÆÿ ÇæÑ ãäÕæÑ ÚÈÇÓی ˜ÿ ÇÓ Â ˜Ñ ÈیŠª Æÿ ãäÕæÑ äÿ ÏÑÈÇä ˜æ ÈáÇ ÇÓ äÿ Ïی˜ªÇ ˜À ÍÖÑÊ ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ÊÔÑیÝ ÝÑãÇ ÀیŸ ÌÈ Â æÇÓ ÊÔÑیÝ áÿ Æÿ Êæ ãäÕæÑ äÿ ÏÑÈÇä ˜æ ÈáÇ ˜Ñ ˜ÀÇ ãیŸ äÿ Ê̪ÿ ˜Ó ÈÇÊ ˜Ç ͘ã ÏیÇ ÊªÇ ÏÑÈÇ ä ÈæáÇ ÎÏÇ ˜ی ÞÓã ãیŸ äÿ ÍÖÑÊ ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ˜æ  ˜ÿ ÇÓ ÂÊÿ Ïی˜ªÇ Àÿ äÀ ÌÇÊÿ ÈÓ ÇÊäÇ äÙÑ ÂیÇ ˜À æÀ  ˜ÿ ÇÓ ÈیŠª Æÿ ʪÿ ۔

˜ÑÇãÊ äãÈÑ ۲

ãäÕæÑ ˜ÿ Çی˜ ÏÑÈÇä ˜Ç ÈیÇä Àÿ ˜À ãیŸ äÿ Çی˜ ÑæÒ ÇÓÿ Ûãیä æ ÑیÔÇä Ïی˜ªÇ Êæ ˜ÀÇ Çÿ ÈÇÏÔÇÀ ‘  ãÊÝ˜Ñ ˜یæŸ ÀیŸ ÈæáÇ ãیŸ äÿ ÚáæیæŸ ˜ÿ Çی˜ Èšÿ ÑæÀ ˜æ ãÑæÇ ÏیÇ Àÿ áی˜ä Çä ˜ÿ ÓÑÏÇÑ ˜æ ªæš ÏیÇ Àÿ ãیŸ äÿ ˜ÀÇ æÀ ˜æä Àÿ ¿ ˜Àäÿ áÇ æÀ ÌÚÝÑ Èä ãÍãÏ Àÿ ãیŸ äÿ ˜ÀÇ æÀ Êæ ÇیÓی ÀÓÊی Àÿ Ìæ ÇááÀ ÊÚÇáی ˜ی ÚÈÇÏÊ ãیŸ ãÍæ ÑÀÊی Àÿ ÇÓÿ ÏäیÇ ˜Ç ˜æÆی áÇ፠äÀیŸ ÎáیÝÀ ÈæáÇ ã̪ÿ ãÚáæã Àÿ Êã ÇÓ Óÿ ˜ª ÇÑÇÏÊ æ ÚÞیÏÊ Ñ˜ªÊÿ Àæ ãیŸ äÿ ÞÓã ˜ªÇ áی Àÿ ˜À ÌÈ Ê˜ ãیŸ ÇÓ ˜Ç ˜Çã ÊãÇã äÀ ˜Ñ áæŸ ÂÑÇã Óÿ äÀیŸ ÈیŠªæŸ Ç äÇäÀ ÇÓ äÿ ÌáÇÏ ˜æ ͘ã ÏیÇ ˜À ÌæäÀی ÌÚÝÑ Èä ãÍãÏ ÂÆÿ ãیŸ ǁäÿ ÀÇʪ ǁäÿ ÓÑ Ñ јª áæŸ Ç Êã ÇÓÿ ÔÀیÏ ˜Ñ ÏیäÇ ۔ ªÑ ÍÖÑÊ ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ˜æ ÈáÇیÇ ãیŸ  ˜ÿ ÓÇʪ ÓÇʪ Àæ áیÇ ãیŸ äÿ Ïی˜ªÇ ˜À  ÒیÑ áÈ ˜ª š ª ÑÀÿ ʪÿ ÌÓ ˜Ç ã̪ÿ ÊÀ äÀ áÇ áی˜ä ãیŸ äÿ ÇÓ یÒ ˜Ç ãÔÇÀÏÀ ÖÑæÑ ˜یÇ ˜À ãäÕæÑ ˜ÿ ãÍáæŸ ãیŸ ÇÑÊÚÇÔ یÏÇ Àæ یÇ æÀ Çä Óÿ ÇÓ ØÑÍ ÈÇÀÑ ä˜áÇ ÌیÓÿ Çی˜ ˜ÔÊی ÓãäÏÑ ˜ی ÊäÏæ ÊیÒ áÀÑæŸ Óÿ ÈÇÀÑ ÂÊی Àÿ ÇÓ ˜Ç ÚÌیÈ ÍáیÀ 滂 æÀ áÑÒÀ ÈÑÇäÏÇã ÈÑÀäÀ ÓÑ ÇæÑ ÈÑÀäÀ ÇÄ ÍÖÑÊ ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ˜ÿ ÇÓÊÞÈÇá ˜یáÆÿ ÂیÇ ÇæÑ Ç ˜ÿ ÈÇÒæ ˜š ˜Ñ ǁäÿ ÓÇʪ ʘیÀ Ñ ÈŠªÇیÇ ÇæÑ ˜Àäÿ áÇ Çÿ ÇÈä ÑÓæá ÇááÀ  ˜یÓÿ ÊÔÑیÝ áÇÆÿ ÀیŸ ¿  äÿ ÝÑãÇیÇ Êæ äÿ ÈáÇیÇ Ñ ãیŸ  یÇ ªÑ ˜Àäÿ áÇ ˜Óی یÒ ˜ی ÖÑæÑ Àæ Êæ ÝÑãÇÆیŸ  äÿ ÝÑãÇیÇ ã̪ÿ ÈÌÒ ÇÓ ÇÓ ˜ÿ ˜Óی یÒ ˜ی ÖÑæÑÊ äÀیŸ ˜À Êã ã̪ÿ یÀÇŸ ÈáÇیÇ äÀ ˜Ñæ ãیŸ ÌÓ æÞÊ ÎæÏ ÇÀæŸ Â ÌÇیÇ ˜ÑæŸ Ç  ÇŠª ˜Ñ ÈÇÀÑ ÊÔÑیÝ áÿ Æÿ Êæ ãäÕæÑ äÿ ÇÓی æÞÊ ÌÇãÀÇÆÿ ÎæÇÈ (ÑÇÊ ˜æ Óæäÿ ˜Ç áÈÇÓ ) ØáÈ ˜Æÿ ÇæÑ ÑÇÊ Æÿ ʘ ÓæÊÇ ÑÀÇ یÀÇŸ ʘ ˜À ÇÓ ˜ی äãÇ ÞÖÇ Àæ Æی ÈیÏÇÑ ÀæÇ Êæ äãÇÒ ÇÏÇ ˜Ñ˜ÿ ã̪ÿ ÈáÇیÇ ÇæÑ ˜ÀÇ ÌÓ æÞÊ ãیŸ äÿ ÌÚÝÑ Èä ãÍãÏ ÚáیÀ ÇáÓáÇã ˜æ ÈáÇیÇ Êæ ãیŸ äÿ Çی˜ ÇŽÏªÇ Ïی˜ªÇ ÌÓ ˜ÿ ãäÀ ˜Ç Çی˜ ÍÕÀ Òãیä Ñ ÊªÇ ÇæÑ ÏæÓÑÇ ÍÕÀ ãیÑÿ ãÍá Ñ æÀ ã̪ÿ ÝÕیÍ æ ÈáیÛ ÒÈÇä ãیŸ ˜ÀÀ ÑÀÇ ÊªÇ ã̪ÿ ÇááÀ ÊÚÇáی äÿ ȪیÌÇ Àÿ ÇÑ Êã Óÿ ÍÖÑÊ ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ˜æ ˜æÆی ÒäÏ Àäی Êæ Ê̪ÿ ÊیÑÿ ãÍá ÓãیÊ ÝäÇ ˜Ñ ÏæŸ Ç ÇÓ Ñ ãیÑی ØÈÚیÊ ÛیÑ Àæ Æی Ìæ Êã äÿ Ïی˜ª Àی áی Àÿ ãیŸ äÿ ˜ÀÇ یÀ ÌÇÏæ یÇÓÎÑ äÀیŸ Àÿ یÀ Êæ ÇÓã ÇÚÙã (ÞÑÂä ˜Ñیã ) ˜ی ÎÇÕیÊ Àÿ Ìæ ÍÖæÑ äÈی ˜Ñیã Ñ äÇÒá Àæ Ç滂 äÇäÀ  äÿ Ìæ ÇÀÇ æÀی ÀæÊÇ ÑÀÇ ۔

˜ÑÇãÊ äãÈÑ ۳

Çی˜ ÑÇæی ˜Ç ÈیÇä Àÿ ˜À Àã ÍÖÑÊ ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ˜ÿ ÓÇʪ ÍÌ ˜یáÆÿ ÌÇ ÑÀÿ ʪÿ ˜À ÑÇÓÊÿ ãیŸ Çی˜ ˜ªÌæÑ ˜ÿ Ó昪ÿ ÏÑÎÊæŸ ˜ÿ ÇÓ ŠªÀÑäÇ šÇ ÍÖÑÊ ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ äÿ ÒیÑ áÈ ˜ª šªäÇ ÔÑæÚ ˜Ñ ÏیÇ ÌÓ ˜ی ã̪ÿ ˜ª Óã̪ äÀ ÂÆی ǍÇä˜ Â äÿ Ó昪ÿ ÏÑÎÊæŸ ˜ی ØÑÝ ãäÀ ˜Ñ˜ÿ ÝÑãÇیÇ ÇááÀ äÿ ÊãÀیŸ ÀãÇÑÿ áÆÿ Ìæ ÑÒÞ æ ÏیÚÊ ˜یÇ Àÿ ÇÓ Óÿ ÀãÇÑی ÖیÇÝÊ ˜Ñæ ãیŸ äÿ Ïی˜ªÇ ˜À æÀ Ìäáی ˜ªÌæÑیŸ  ˜ی ØÑÝ Ìª˜ ÑÀی ʪیŸ Ìä Ñ ÊÑÎæÔÿ ኘ ÑÀÿ ʪÿ  äÿ ÝÑãÇیÇ ÂÄ ÇæÑ ÈÓã ÇááÀ ˜Ñ ˜ÿ ˜ªÇÄ ãیŸ äÿ  ˜ÿ ͘㠘ی ÊÚãیá ˜ÑÊÿ ÀæÆÿ ˜ªÌæÑیŸ ˜ªÇ áیŸ ÇیÓی ÔیÑیŸ ˜ªÌæÑیŸ Àã äÿ Àáÿ ˜Èªی äÀ ˜ªÇÆی ʪیŸ ÇÓ ÌÀ Çی˜ ÇÚÑÇÈی ãæÌæÏ ÊªÇ ÇÓ äÿ ˜ÀÇ Â ÌیÓÇ ÌÇÏæÑ ãیŸ äÿ ˜Èªی äÀیŸ Ïی˜ªÇ ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ äÿ ÝÑãÇیÇ À㠁یÚãÈÑæŸ ˜ÿ æÇÑË ÀیŸ Àã ÓÇÍÑæ ˜ÇÀä äÀیŸ ÀæÊÿ Àã Êæ ÏÚÇ ˜ÑÊÿ ÀیŸ Ìæ ÇááÀ ÊÚÇáی ÞÈæá ÝÑãÇ áیÊÇ Àÿ ÇÑ Ê㠍ÇÀæ Êæ ÀãÇÑی ÏÚÇ Óÿ ÊãÀÇÑی Ô˜á ÈÏá ÌÇÆÿ ÇæÑ Êã Çی˜ ˜Êÿ ãیŸ ãÊÔ˜á Àæ ÌÇÄ ÇÚÑÇÈی æä˜À ÌÇÀá 滂 ÇÓ áÆÿ ˜Àäÿ áÇ ÀÇŸ ÇȪی ÏÚÇ ˜یÌÆÿ  äÿ ÏÚÇ ˜ی Êæ æÀ ˜ÊÇ Èä یÇ ÇæÑ Çäÿ ªÑ ˜ی ØÑÝ ÈªÇ یÇ ÍÖÑÊ ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ äÿ ã̪ÿ ÝÑãÇیÇ ÇÓ ˜Ç ÊÚÇÞÈ ˜Ñæ ãیŸ ÇÓ ˜ÿ یªÿ یÇ Êæ æÀ ǁäÿ ªÑ ãیŸ ÌÇ ˜Ñ ÈæŸ ÇæÑ ªÑ æÇáæŸ ˜ÿ ÓÇãäÿ ǁäی Ïã ÀáÇäÿ áÇ ÇäÀæŸ äÿ ÇÓÿ äÇ ãÇÑ ˜Ñ ȪÇ ÏیÇ æÇÓ ÂیÇ Êæ ÊãÇã ÍÇá ˜ÀÀ ÓäÇیÇ ÇÊäÿ ãیŸ æÀ Ȫی یÇ ÇæÑ ÍÖÑÊ ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ˜ÿ ÓÇãäÿ Òãیä Ñ áæŠäÿ ᐠÇÇÓ ˜ی Âä˜ªæŸ Óÿ Çäی Š˜äÿ áÇ ÍÖÑÊ ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ äÿ ÇÓ Ñ ÑÍã ˜ªÇ ˜Ñ ÏÚÇ ÝÑãÇÆی Êæ æÀ Ô˜á ÇäÓÇäی ãیŸ  یÇ ªÑ  äÿ ÝÑãÇیÇ Çÿ ÇÚÑÇÈی ãیŸ äÿ Ìæ ˜ª ˜ÀÇ ÊªÇ ÇÓ Ñ یÞیä Àÿ ˜À äÀیŸ ¿ ˜Àäÿ áÇ ÀÇŸ ÌäÇÈ Çی˜ ÈÇÑ äÀیŸ ÇÓ Ñ ÀÒÇÑ ÈÇÑ ÇیãÇä æ یÞیä јªÊÇ ÀæŸ Çä ˜ÿ ÌÏ ãÕØÝÿ ˜æ Ȫی áæ ÌÇÏæ Ñ ˜ÀÇ ˜ÑÊÿ ʪÿ (ãÚÇÐ ÇááÀ) ÇæÑ Çä ˜ی Âá Ç˜ ˜ÿ ÈÇÑÿ ãیŸ Ȫی یÀی ÎیÇá ˜Ñäÿ áÿ ÝÑÞ ÕÑÝ یÀ 滂 ˜À æÀ ˜ÇÝÑæŸ ãیŸ Óÿ ÀæÊÿ ʪÿ ÇæÑ یÀ ãä˜Ñیä ãیŸ Óÿ 滂 ÇÓ Ñ Ȫی ÎæÔی Àÿ ˜À ˜ÊÇÈääÿ ˜ÿ ÈÚÏ ÑÇÀ ÑÇÓÊ Ñ Êæ  یÇ ۔

˜ÑÇãÊ äãÈÑ ۴

Çی˜ ÂÏãی  ˜ÿ ÇÓ ÏÓ ÀÒÇÑ ÏیäÇ áÿ ˜Ñ ÂیÇ ÇæÑ ˜ÀÇ ãیŸ ÍÌ ˜یáÆÿ ÌÇ ÑÀÇ ÀæŸ Â ãیÑÿ áÆÿ ÇÓ یÓÿ ˜æÆی ÓÑÇÆÿ ÎÑیÏ áیŸ ÊǘÀ ãیŸ ÍÌ Óÿ æǁÓی Ñ ǁäÿ ÇÀá æ ÚیÇá ÓãیÊ ÇÓ ãیŸ ÑÀÇÆÔ ÇÎÊیÇ Ñ ˜æŸ ÍÌ Óÿ æǁÓی Ñ æÀ ÍÖÑÊ ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ ˜ی ÎÏãÊ ãیŸ ÍÇÖÑ ÀæÇ Â äÿ ÝÑãÇیÇ ãیŸ äÿ ÊãÀÇÑÿ áÆÿ ÈÀÔÊ ãیŸ ÓÑÇÆÿ ÎÑیÏ áی Àÿ ÌÓ ˜ی Àáی ÍÏ ÍÖæÑ Ñ ÏæÓÑی ÍÖÑÊ Úáی Ñ ÊیÓÑی ÍÖÑÊ ÍÓä Ñ ÇæÑ æʪی ÍÖÑÊ ÍÓیä Ñ ÎÊã ÀæÊی Àÿ ÇæÑ یÀ áæ ãیŸ äÿ ÑæÇäÀ á˜ªÇ ÏیÇ ÇÓ äÿ یÀ ÈÇÊ Óäی Êæ ˜ÀÇ ãیŸ ÇÓ Ñ ÎæÔ ÀæŸ äÇäÀ æÀ ÑæÇäÀ áÿ ˜Ñ ǁäÿ ªÑ áÇ یÇ ªÑ ÌÇÊÿ Àی ÈیãÇÑ Àæ یÇ ÇæÑ æÕیÊ ˜ی ÇÓ ÑæÇäÿ ˜æ ãیÑی æÝÇÊ ˜ÿ ÈÚÏ ÞÈÑ ãیŸ јª ÏیäÇ áæÇÍÞیä äÿ ÊÏÝیä ˜ÿ æÞÊ ÇÓ ÑæÇäÿ ˜æ Ȫی ÞÈÑ ãیŸ јª ÏیÇ ÏæÓÑÿ Ïä Ïی˜ªÇ ˜À æÀی ÑæÇäÀ ÞÈÑ Ñ šÇ ÀæÇ ÊªÇ ÇæÑ ÇÓ ˜ی ÔÊ Ñ یÀ ãÑÞæã 滂 ˜À ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ äÿ Ìæ æÚÏÀ ˜یÇ ÊªÇ æÀ æÑÇ Àæ یÇ ۔

˜ÑÇãÊ äãÈÑ ۵

ÇÈä ÌæÒی äÿ ˜ÊÇÈ " ÕÝÊÀ ÇáÕÝæÀ " ãیŸ áیË Èä ÓÚÏ Óÿ ÈÀ ÇÓäÇÏ ÎæÏ ÑæÇیÊ ˜ی Àÿ æÀ ˜ÀÊÿ ÀیŸ ˜À ãیŸ ãæÓã ÍÌ ãیŸ ã˜À ãÚÙãÀ äãÇÒ ÚÕÑ ÇÏÇ ˜Ñ ÀÇ ÊªÇ ÝÑÇÛÊ ˜ÿ ÈÚÏ ãیŸ ˜æÀ ÇÈæÞÈیÓ ˜ی æŠیÑ š ª یÇ ˜یÇ Ïی˜ªÊÇ ÀæŸ ˜À æÀÇŸ Çی˜ ÔÎÕ ÈیŠªÇ ÀæÇ Àÿ ÇæÑ ÏÚÇ ãÇä ÑÀÇ Àÿ ÇȪی ÇÓ ˜ی ÏÚÇ ÎÊã Ȫی äÀ ÀæÆی ʪی ˜À ãیŸ äÿ æÀÇŸ Çی˜ Ç ÇäæÑæŸ ˜Ç ÇæÑ äÆی ÇÏÑیŸ Ñی ÀæÆی Ïی˜ªیŸ ÇÓ æÞÊ ÇäæÑ ˜ÀیŸ Ȫی ÏÓÊیÇÈ äÀ ʪÿ ÌÈ ÕÝÇ æ ãÑæÀ Ñ Àäÿ Êæ ÇÓÿ Çی˜ ÔÎÕ ãáÇ ÌÓ äÿ ˜ÀÇ Çÿ ÇÈä ÑÓæá ãیÑÇ Êä ªÇäÆÿ ÇááÀ ÊÚÇáی  ˜Ç Êä ªÇäÿ Ç ÇäÀæŸ äÿ ÏæäæŸ ÇÏÑیŸ ÇÓÿ Ïÿ ÏیŸ ãیŸ äÿ æªÇ یÀ ÇÏÑیŸ Ïیäÿ æÇáÿ ˜æä ÀیŸ ¿ Êæ ÇÓ äÿ ˜ÀÇ یÀ ÌÚÝÑ Èä ãÍãÏ ÀیŸ ۔

ÇãÇã ÌÚÝÑ ÕÇÏÞ äÿ ÝÑãÇیÇ ÇááÀ ˜ÿ Þæá " æ˜Çä ÇÈæªãÇ ÕÇáÍÇ " ˜ÿ ãØÇÈÞ ÀãÇÑÇ ÇÓی ØÑÍ ÇÓ áÍÇ٠јªæ ÌیÓÿ Çä Ïæ یÊیãæŸ ˜Ç ÇÓ áÍÇÙ ÍÖÑÊ ÎÖÑ äÿ ˜یÇ ÊªÇ ˜یæä˜À Çä ˜Ç Èǁ ÕÇáÍ ÊªÇ ۔   


Essay Written Comipled & Contributed By:-

S  H  Bangash.


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